What is Amoebiasis Disease? Here are the Facts!
This is a protozoan disease with the causative agent being Entamoeba histolytica. Therefore, amoebiasis is an infection of large intestines. Precisely, it is a disease that can also be through faecal contamination.
Generally, there are a number of species for amoeba but can exist as parasites inside the human intestines though only one is known to cause a disease.
In addition, amoebiasis is a waterborne disease. You can contract it by consuming water or food that contains Amoebic cysts. It occurs mainly between young to middle-aged person.
More so, you can transmit amoebiasis from your hand to mouth, being in contact with surfaces or objects contaminated from an infected person. The parasites can alternate fruits and vegetables grown in areas where human faeces is used as fertilizers.
Causes of Amoebiasis
- Trophozoite(Operative parasite)- Inactive outside the body.
- Cyst- Inactive but active or live outside the body.
Initially, the infection begins when you consume the cysts. The cyst will hatch into trophozoite then, they multiply into your intestinal lining thereby causing ulcer. The end result being diarrhoea.
However, we can transmit the cyst directly to another or indirectly through contamination of food or water.
The 4 Forms of Intestinal Amoebiasis
- Asymptomatic carrier
- Amoebic colitis
- Fulminant colitis
1. Asymptomatic Carrier
2. Amoeba colitis
Healthcare professionals sharply define the ulcerations as eroded undermine edges. We clinically express it as:
- Abdominal pain
- Diarrhoea with blood in the faeces
- Moderate or no fever
- When the rectum is affected, there is tenesmus (painful crumps) in the anus.
3. Fulminant colitis
Symptoms of Amoebiasis
- Abdominal pain
- Weight loss
- Enlarged liver (Hepatomegally)
Moreover, one may complain of pain of upper right option of the abdomen that start gradually with frequent lose of watery bowel movements.
Treatment & Prevention
- Washing fruits and vegetables
- Boiling and disinfecting drinking water
- Improving food handling techniques
- Proper diagnosis
Treatment (Educational purposes only)
1.) Give ORS solution to dehydrated patients to compensate for the loss of bodily fluids.
2.) In Amoebic dysentery, give metronidazole 800 gms 3 times daily for 5 days:
- Tinidazole~ 2 gms on 3 days
- Diloxanide furoate 500 mg 3 times for 10 days.
3.) In the case of liver abscess you give:
- Metronidazole 400 mg 3 times daily up to 10 days.
- Tinidazole 2 gms for 6 days.