This is How Our Drugs are Classified
Overview of Drugs
Firstly, a drug is a chemically compound when taken orally or parental it can illicit a pharmaceutical action. You can use to manage abnormal conditions in human and animal body.
Drugs Classification I
The organ system has been found as the most appropriate or convenient system for basic classification of drugs which are therefore classified as:
a.) Drugs acting on the GIT (Gastrointestinal Tract) – Antacids e.g. Magnesium hydroxide, Antispasmodics e.g. Bascopan, Ulcer treatment drugs e.g. Cemitidine, Antidiarrhoeal drugs.
b.) Drugs acting on the Cardiovascular System – These have a positive inotropic effect on the heart muscle e.g. digoxin (Lasix).
In addition, diuretics which increase urine output and subsequently increase the loss of sodium ion (Na+) e.g. Frusemide, Spironolactone, Hydrochlorothiazide.
Moreover, there are antirrhythmic drugs (loss of rhythm in heart muscle contraction) e.g. Verapamil, Atenolol, Propranolol.
We also have anti-impotent drugs which we can obtain from Sidenifil extracts.
c.) Drugs acting on Respiratory tract – They cause broncho-dilation. They are used in management of asthma attacks e.g. Salbutamol, Feneterol, Tarbutaline, B2 – adrenergic argonists.
d.) Drugs acting on Autonomous Nervous System (ANS) – In short, they includes acting on both Sympathetic and Parasympathetic nervous system. They have alpha or beta-adrenergic cells. Drugs acting on ANS confer to action by binding on adrenaline (epinephrine). Norepinephrine – They are neurotransmitters.
e.) Drugs acting on CNS (Central Nervous System) which include CNS stimulants like Amphetamines, Theophylines (Used to treat depression); caffeine.
Also CNS depressants e.g. Benzodiazepines, barbiturates.
f.) Drugs for treatment of Infections – They include antibiotics, antivirals, antiprotozoal, antifungals, antihelminths.
g.) Drugs acting on the Endocrine System – they include hormonal contraceptives.
Drugs Classification II
h.) Drugs acting on obstetrics, gynaecology and UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) which include oxytocin, chlomiphine.
i.) Drugs used in Malignant diseases and Immunosuppression (Transplant patients) – They include toxins in essence Cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, doxorubicin. For the latter, we have cyclosporin, tacrolimus.
j.) Drugs used as nutritional supplements and blood builders that include vitamins, hematinics (iron).
k.) Drugs acting on the eyes – They are mainly antibiotics and antivirals. Antivirals are like idoxuridine, antibiotics can include gentamycin cystic fibrisis i.e. CMV (Cytomegalovirus). Pilocarpine eye drops are used to treat effect glaucoma.
l.) Drugs used on muscular-skeletal and joint diseases – They are analgesics (pain killers) e.g. Brufen, paracetamol, diclofenac and piroxicam. Also muscle relaxants like orphenadrine are included in this class.
m.) Drugs used on ear-nose tract infections– Chloramphenical.
n.) Drugs used as immunological products or vaccines – Include BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerrine) vaccine, DPT vaccine, typhoid fever vaccine, Hepatitis B vaccine, Polio vaccine.
o.) Drugs used as anaesthetics – There are two types of anaesthetics:
- General – They are used in major surgical operations to induce unconsciousness e.g. Halothane, thiopentone, nitrous oxide (NO)
- Local – They are employed when carrying out minor surgical operations. They include operations like wound repair, suturing as well as cleaning of surgical wounds. A good example is 2% cocaine HCl, Bupivacaine.
Uses of Drugs
- To cure diseases
- Suppress diseases
- Prevent diseases