Hydrological Cycle (Water Cycle) | Overview
Hydrological cycle is a continuous circulation of water in the earth-atmosphere system. In short, water goes round in a circle (water cycle).
It can therefore fall as rain, some water run off into the streams while producing delta that connects into the rivers and into the sea.
During the hydrological cycle, water evaporates back to the atmosphere whereby it condenses and falls as rainfall or snow.
Types of (Hydrological Cycle) Water
We normally consider it as the purest form of water. During vaporization by the sun (hydrological cycle), water on earth leaves impurities and salts behind.
Unfortunately, rainwater becomes less pure since it brings down impurities and particles present in the atmosphere along with it.
If you collect from iron sheets or tile roofs into grattus and/or tanks (which must be clean and closed). Generally, this is the purest form of natural water.
Firstly, it is difficult to collect from thatched roofs. Nonetheless, rainwater from this type of roof has an unpleasant brown colour. This therefore makes it not condusive to most of its users due to this condition!
Secondly, we will require grattus/large tanks in large quantities to store water in the dry season. Therefore, the source is weather dependent. The hydrological cycle has a precipitation process, among others that we expect rainfall in.
Thirdly, rainwater is soft (does not contain essential mineral salts like Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions)
ii.) Upland surface water
This is water from the hydrological cycle collects into streams, where we live. In addition, it is plentiful, clean and makes good drinking water.
The source must be protected. (If human settlement occurs in the catchment area, the water will be polluted).
iii.) Surface water
According to the CDC, it is a hydrological type of water that collects on the ground or in a stream, river, lake, reservoir, or ocean.
Therefore, surface water is constantly replenishes through precipitation.
In addition, it is lost through evaporation and seepage into ground water supplies during water cycle process.
Whether in ponds, lakes, shuttle streams or rivers or borehole or dams is the most common source of water produced as a result of the hydrological cycle.
It is easily portable, can be obtained by hand.
This water is easily polluted as it runs from grounds where humans urinate and duplicate. Nevertheless, people also wash and bath in it.
More so, it is vulnerable to pollution by chemicals used in agriculture and in industries.
iv.) Underground water (e.g. Boreholes)
We can find this hydrological type of water in cracks and spaces in soil, sand and rocks.
These altogether store underground water which moves slowly through geologic formations by the name aquifers.
- Several essential minerals are in it.
- It travels through soil (soil is a good filter).
- It is clean and permanent.
- Sometimes it’s too salty (the taste is not friendly) due to hydrological cycle effects such as high temperatures from the sun.
- Since it’s hard water, it requires more detergents to wash.
v.) Sea water
By the time water reaches the sea, it is salty and probably contaminated.
Basically, drinking can be deadly to humans. Sea water contains salts, smaller amounts of other substances, including dissolved organic and inorganic compounds and a few atmospheric gases.
With all that amount in the body, it can affect our kidneys function.
Factually, our kidneys can make urine that is less salty than salty water. Therefore, to get rid of all the salts taken in by drinking sea water, you have to urinate more water than you drank.