Gonorrhoea as a Sexually Transmitted Disease
Gonorrhoea is among the most common Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) caused by a bacteria known as Neisseria gonorrhoeae. If treated early & properly, gonorrhoea is curable but if not, the disease has many complications.
In addition, the most affected group is between 15 to 24 years.
Signs & Symptoms
- Vaginal discharge (yellow or stains of blood)
- Urinary difficulty
- Off circle bleeding
- Bleeding after sexual intercourse
- Cervicitis (cervix inflammation)
- Urethritis (inflammation of the urethra)
- Vomiting & fever
The first place this bacteria infects is the columnar epithelia-endocervix
Complications in women
- The bacteria can spread into the upper reproductive tract and attack the fallopian tubes leading to a complication called Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (P.I.D)
- Without treatment, bacteria can spread through the blood stream causing infection of the joints, the brain and heart valves.
- Due to P.I.D, the embryo may implant into the tube causing a tubal pregnancy (ectopic pregnancy). Nevertheless, this is a serious condition that may result into miscarriage to the mother mainly due to excessive bleeding.
Gonorrhoea in Men
Signs & Symptoms
- Pain on urination
- Thick copious, urethral pus discharge (gleet)
- Reddened meatus
The infection if not treated can ascend causing epidydimis inflammation, scrotal pain and scrotal swelling.
Discharge, Anal itching, passing of blood-stained stool.
In babies, the main symptom is conjunctivitis which if left untreated causes blindness.
Can be learned best on symptoms (clinical diagnosis) or based on laboratory diagnosis.
Three lab. techniques
i.) Staining samples directly from the bacteria
ii.) Detection of bacterial genes in urine or DNA
iii.) Growing the bacteria in the lab. i.e lab. culture