Effects of Tuberculosis (TB) in Pregnancy
In pregnancy, tuberculosis can cause dire effects or consequences. Tuberculosis (TB) can lead you or your pregnant relative to a difficult child birth!
Among other effects, tuberculosis (TB) can cause infertility.
Tuberculosis (TB) generally, is a chronic infectious disease caused by an organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Some of our pregnant women/mothers tend to take tuberculosis signs such as drastic loss of weight as something that will just pick on its on, which is wrong!
Sincerely, tuberculosis in pregnancy has major effects. They may include persistent cough for upto 2weeks, coughing out blood, chest pain among others.
Over 90% of new TB cases and deaths occur in developing countries.
For the most part, tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death among pregnant women, women of reproductive age.
Nevertheless, tuberculosis (and its effects) has increased by 10 folds over the last 15 years in Kenya.
Effects of Tuberculosis (TB) in Pregnancy Increase due to:
Types of Tuberculosis (TB) also found in Pregnancy.
- Pulmonary TB (The most common and infectious type of TB)
- ExtraPulmonary TB– Affects outside the lungs. It affects bladder, testes, bones, intestines, skin, ovaries, lungs, meninges. The most common EPTB occurs in the glands and its called TB Lymphadenitis.
Pulmonary Tuberculosis symptoms in pregnancy
- Persistent cough lasting for 2 or more weeks with or without bloodstained sputum.
- Loss of body weight.
- Intermittent fever.
- Excessive night sweats.
- Shortness of breath.
- Loss of appetite.
- Chest pain.
- Excessive tiredness and generally feeling unwell.
Signs and Symptoms of lymphadenitis in pregnancy.
- Slow and painless enlargement of the lymph nodes which eventually discharge pus. The most common lymphadenitis is cervical neck.
- Generalised lymph nodes enlargement.
When does Tuberculosis (TB) during Pregnancy pass from the mother to the baby?
Pregnant women infected with tuberculosis can pass it to the baby through the placental barrier causing effects such as foetal death or infection.
It can thereby, lead to congenital TB (tuberculosis).
At birth, when the baby inhales or ingests infected amniotic fluid or secretions. Here, direct transmission occurs.
Also, effects of the baby inhaling droplet secretions, if the mother is coughing causes tuberculosis infection. Whether you are pregnant or not, please cover yourself when coughing or sneezing!
Tuberculosis affects the health of a pregnant woman and the baby.
Tuberculosis in pregnant women can lead to the following effects:-
- Premature birth of the baby.
- Low birth weights of the baby/ small baby.
- Death of the baby in the uterus.
- Infecting the baby with TB.
- Increased new born deaths.
INVESTIGATION ON TB EFFECTS IN PREGNANCY:
– Smear positive tuberculosis cases are the most infectious to the new born and other children in the household.
– The smear negative cases and EPTB are diagnosed through history, physical examination, radiography and histology.